Information on all the types of lymphangiectasia, including intestinal, pulmonary, renal, cutaneous (skin). Sponsored by Pat O'Connor

Wednesday, February 28, 2007

Results of transcatheter Fontan fenestration to treat protein losing enteropathy

Results of transcatheter Fontan fenestration to treat protein losing enteropathy/ intestinal lymphangiectasia
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2007 Feb

Vyas H,
Driscoll DJ,
Cabalka AK,
Cetta F,
Hagler DJ.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.

Transcatheter fenestration to create an interatrial communication has been used to treat patients with protein losing enteropathy (PLE) after Fontan operation. No systematic data have been reported assessing the results of this procedure. Our institutional database was queried to identify patients after Fontan operation who had transcatheter fenestration to treat PLE. Clinical notes, laboratory data, echocardiograms, and cardiac catheterization data were reviewed.

From 1995 to 2005, 16 transcatheter fenestration procedures were performed in seven patients. Median age at fenestration was 18 years (range 13-41 years). Median duration of follow-up was 3.6 years (range 0.2-10.4 years). Techniques for fenestration included blade/balloon septostomy, stent placement, Amplatzer-fenestrated ASD device, and balloon dilation of previous stent. Size of the fenestration created was 5.2 +/- 1.1 mm. Systemic venous pressure remained unchanged after fenestration. Cardiac index increased significantly. Reduction of ascites and edema was noted after 9 of the 16 procedures. Ten of 16 (63%) of fenestrations spontaneously occluded.

Three patients are free of ascites although recurrence of PLE occurred in all. One patient with a patent fenestration continues to have ascites. Two patients had Fontan takedown. One patient had conversion to a fenestrated extracardiac conduit Fontan and died postoperatively. The results of transcatheter Fontan fenestration are often disappointing. Maintaining fenestration patency is difficult. Even after "successful" fenestration, resolution of PLE may be incomplete and recurrences have occurred in all. Early consideration should be given to Fontan takedown or cardiac transplant in severely symptomatic patients with PLE who do not respond to fenestration. Transcatheter fenestration may be a bridge to a definitive procedure.

(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Pub Med

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Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Clinical studies of pediatric malabsorption syndromes (lymphangiectasia)

Clinical studies of pediatric malabsorption syndromes (lymphangiectasia)

Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2006 Nov

Hosoyamada T.
Department of Pediatrics Fukuoka Red Cross Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Multiple cases with various types of pediatric malabsorption syndromes were evaluated. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, pathophysiology, and histopathological descriptions of each patient were analyzed in an effort to clear the pathogenesis of the malabsorption syndromes and the treatments were undertaken.

The cases studied, included one patient with cystic fibrosis, two with lactose intolerance with lactosuria (Durand type), one with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, two with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, one with Hartnup disease, one with congenital chroride diarrhea, one with acrodermatitis enteropathica, one with intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH), five with intractable diarrhea of early infancy and four with glycogenosis type Ia. Each case description and outcome is described below: 1. A 15-year-old Japanese boy with cystic fibrosis presented with severe symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bronchiectasis, pneumothorax and hemoptysis. His prognosis was poor.

Analysis of the CFTR genes of this patient revealed a homozygous large deletion from intron 16 to 17b. 2. In the sibling case of Durand type lactose intolerance, the subjects'disaccaridase activity of the small bowel, including lactase, were within normal limits. The results of per oral and per intraduodenal lactose tolerance tests confirmed lactosuria in both. These observations suggested, not only an abnormal gastric condition, but also duodenal and intestinal mucosal abnormal permeability of lactose. 3. In the case of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, the subject had a lymphedematous right arm and hand, a grossly coarsened mucosal pattern of the upper gastrointestinal tract (identified via radiologic examination) and the presence of lymphangiectasia (confirmed via duodenal mucosal biopsy).

The major laboratory findings were hypoalbuminemia, decreased immunoglobulin levels and lymphopenia resulting from loss of lymph fluid and protein into the gastro-intestinal tract. 4. In two cases of heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, serum total cholesterol and betalipoprotein levels were very low. The subjects presented with symptoms and signs of acanthocytosis and fat malabsorption. Further, one subject had neurological abnormalities such as mental retardation and severe convulsions.

Treatment with MCT formula diet corrected the lipid malabsorption. 5. A 5-year-old girl presented with pellagra-like rashes, mental retardation and cerebellar ataxia. An oral tryptophan (Trp) and dipeptide (Trp-Phe) loading test were conducted and the renal clearance of amino acids was also evaluated in this patient and in controls. Following the oral Trp loading test, plasma levels of Trp indicated a lower peak in the case, reaching a maximum at 60 minutes. On the other hand, the oral dipeptide (Trp-Phe) loading test in the Hartnup patient showed the peak Trp plasma level was the same as the control subjects. The renal clearance of neutral amino acids in this case increased to levels 5 to 35 times normal. 6. In the case of congenital chloride diarrhea, the subject had secondary lactose intolerance, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyperreninemia and metabolic alkalosis. The chloride content of her fecal fluid was very high. The concentrations were 89-103 mEq/l. In contrast, her urine was chloride-free.

The subject's growth and development improved after treatment with lactose free formura and oral replacement of the fecal loses of water, NaCl and KCl. Unfortunately, the patient died of a small bowel intussusception. The kidney histopathological finding was juxtaglomerular hyperplasia by a necropsy. 7. In the case of acrodermatitis enteropathica, the subject had characteristic skin lesions, low serum zinc levels and ALPase activity. An oral ZnSO4 loading test and intestinal mucosal histology by a peroral biopsy were conducted. The serum zinc peak level was 2 hours after the oral ZnSO4 loading test. Infant formula alone could not maintain normal serum zinc ranges. Light microscopic studies of the intestinal villous architecture showed a normal pattern. However, ultrastructual examination of several epithelial cells revealed numerous intracellular vesicles. After zinc therapy, these changes were decreased. The lesions were postulated as the secondary result of zinc deficiency. 8.

A 12-year-old girl presented with hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, chronic diarrhea and intestinal NLH. A barium meal and follow-through examination showed multiple nodules throughout the stomach and intestine. The nodules, all uniform in size, were 2 mm diameter. The barium enema did not show NLH in the colon. Mucosal biopsy of the stomach and jejunum revealed the typical histology of NLH in the lamina propria. Also, achlorhydria was present in this patient and her serum gastrin levels were very high; 315-775 pg/ml. 9. In 4 cases of intractable diarrhea in early infancy (by Avery G B), a jejunal biopsy showed shortening villi and nonspecific enterocolitis. Some patients were found with only low lactase or low lactase and sucrase levels. An electron microscope analysis of the small bowel in 2 cases showed alterations: increased pinocytosis in microvillus membranes and lysosomes by endocytosis of undigested macromolecular substances.

I postulated that the stated evidence was causative of this clinical profile. 10. I frequently observed diarrhea as a clinical manifestation in glycogenosis type Ia and lipid malabsorption in one case. The light and electron photomicrographs showed intestinal absorption cells with the glycogen deposits in the inferior devision of nuclei.


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Wednesday, February 14, 2007

Autopsy case of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis.

Autopsy case of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis.
Hirano H,
Nishigami T,
Okimura A,
Nakasho K,
Uematsu K.

Second Department of Pathology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis (CPL) is a rare anomaly. We report a female infant born at 39 weeks of gestation who was found to have CPL. Cyanosis and tachypnea were noted immediately after birth, and, at room air, PaO2 was 30.7 mmHg, PaCO2 was 82.5 mmHg and pH was 7.12. The infant's symptoms did not improve even with the initiation of artificial ventilation. Chest X-ray film showed cotton-like infiltrates in both lungs and an air-leak surrounding the cardiac shadow. Echocardiography study showed no abnormality. The neonate died 3 days after birth due to hypoxemic cardiac failure. At autopsy, the pleural surface contained numerous dilated vessels that had the appearance of lymphatics. Microscopic features of the lungs were marked lymphatic dilatation of the perivascular, subpleural and interlobular areas. Lymphangiectasis was found in the liver, kidney, pancreas, thyroid and alimentary canals, such as the esophagus, stomach and rectum. Patients with lymphatic dilatations in extrapulmonary organs have mild pulmonary involvement and symptoms and a better prognosis. However, a few cases of CPL with lymphatic dilatations in extrapulmonary organs and an aggressive course, such as the present case, have been reported. The clinical behavior and prognosis of CPL depend on the extent of pulmonary involvement of the lymphatic dilatations regardless of systemic lymphatic dilations.

Blackwell Synergy

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Thursday, February 01, 2007

Necrolytic migratory erythema in Waldmann's disease (lymphangiectasia)

Necrolytic migratory erythema in Waldmann's disease (lymphangiectasia)

Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Aug-Sep

Baricault S,
Soubrane JC,
Courville P,
Young P,
Joly P.

Clinique Dermatologique, CHU de Rouen, France.

BACKGROUND: We report a case of necrolytic migratory erythema in a patient with Waldmann's disease.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 55-year-old male patient with a history of Waldmann's disease was hospitalized for a rash on the trunk and limbs comprising annular polycyclic lesions with peripheral scaling evocative of necrolytic migratory erythema. High-protein and fatty-acid-supplemented parenteral feeding led to rapid improvement of the patient's cutaneous lesions.

DISCUSSION: Waldmann's disease is characterized by intestinal lymphatic abnormalities leading to exudative intestinal disease causing protein loss in the bowel lumen and deficient fatty acid absorption. The pathogenesis of necrolytic migratory erythema is not fully understood. Increased serum glucagon does not appear to be the only mechanism involved. The occurrence of necrolytic migratory erythema in a patient with Waldmann's disease supports the current physiopathological hypothesis of the role of decreased plasma protein and amino acid levels in necrolytic migratory erythema.