Information on all the types of lymphangiectasia, including intestinal, pulmonary, renal, cutaneous (skin). Sponsored by Pat O'Connor

Monday, December 25, 2006

Cutaneous manifestations and massive genital involvement in Hennekam syndrome (intestinal lymphangiectasia)

Cutaneous manifestations and massive genital involvement in Hennekam syndrome (intestinal lymphangiectasia)
Pediatr Dermatol. 2006 May-Jun
Musumeci ML,
Nasca MR,
De Pasquale R,
Schwartz RA,
Micali G.

Dermatology Clinic, University of Catania, Italy.

We describe a 16-year-old boy with intestinal lymphangiectasia, lymphedema of the limbs and genitalia, mild mental retardation, and facial anomalies (Hennekam syndrome) and cutaneous lesions. Severe edema in the genital area created a gigantic mass that included the scrotum and penis. Numerous grouped red-violaceous pseudo-vesicular lesions and plaques, as well as verrucous brown papules, were present on the penis and scrotum. The prepuce was hypertrophic, with severe phimosis. Histologic analysis revealed dilated lymphatic vessels lined by a discontinuous layer of flat endothelial cells in the papillary dermis and extending down to the reticular dermis. Dilated blood vessels were also present but no cellular abnormalities were identified. A diagnosis of superficial cutaneous lymphatic malformations was made.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed cutaneous histologic investigation in a patient with Hennekam syndrome. We assume that the onset of cutaneous lesions in our patient was likely triggered by a generalized worsening of his lymphedema.


Sunday, December 10, 2006

Intestinal lymphangiectasia and Chylous Ascites

Intestinal lymphangiectasia and Chylous Ascites

Treatment of symptomatic primary chylous disorders.

Noel AA; Gloviczki P; Bender CE; Whitley D; Stanson AW; Deschamps CDivision of Vascular Surgery, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn. 55905, USA


Primary chylous disorders (PCDs) are rare. Rupture of dilated lymph vessels (lymphangiectasia) may result in chylous ascites, chylothorax, or leakage of chyle through chylocutanous fistulas in the lower limbs or genitalia. Chyle may reflux through incompetent lymphatics, causing lymphedema. To assess the efficacy of surgical treatment, we reviewed our experience.


The clinical data of 35 patients with PCDs treated between January 1, 1976, and August 31, 2000, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Fifteen men and 20 women (mean age, 29 years; range, 1 day-81 years) presented with PCDs. Sixteen (46%) patients had chylous ascites, and 19 (54%) had chylothorax (20 patients), and of these, 10 (29%) had both. In 16 patients, reflux of chyle into the pelvic or lower limb lymphatics caused lymphedema (14, 88%) or lymphatic leak through cutaneous fistulae (11, 69%). Presenting symptoms included lower-limb edema (19, 54%), dyspnea (17, 49%), scrotal or labial edema (15, 43%), or abdominal distention (13, 37%). Primary lymphangiectasia presented alone in 23 patients (66%), and it was associated with clinical syndromes or additional pathologic findings in 12 (yellow nail syndrome in 4, lymphangiomyomatosis in 3, unknown in 3, Prasad syndrome (hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphadenopathy, and pulmonary insufficiency) in 1, and thoracic duct cyst in 1). Twenty-one (60%) patients underwent 26 surgical procedures.

Preoperative imaging included computed tomography scan in 15 patients, magnetic resonance imaging in 3, lymphoscintigraphy in 12, and lymphangiography in 14. Fifteen patients underwent 18 procedures for chylous ascites or pelvic reflux. Ten (56%) procedures were resection of retroperitoneal/mesenteric lymphatics with or without sclerotherapy of lymphatics, 4 (22%) were lymphovenous anastomoses or grafts, 3 (17%) were peritoneovenous shunts, and 1 (6%) patient had a hysterectomy. Six patients underwent eight procedures for chylothorax, including thoracotomy with decortication and pleurodesis (4 procedures), thoracoscopic decortication (1 patient), ligation of thoracic duct (2 procedures), and resection of thoracic duct cyst (1 patient). Postoperative mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 0.3-276).

Early complications included wound infections in 3 patients, elevated liver enzymes in 1, and peritoneovenous shunt occlusion with innominate vein occlusion in 1. All patients improved initially, but four (19%) had recurrence of symptoms at a mean of 25 months (range, 1-43). Three patients had postoperative lymphoscintigraphy confirming improved lymphatic transport and diminished reflux. One patient died 12 years postoperatively, from causes unrelated to PCD.


More than half of the patients with PCDs require surgical treatment, and surgery should be considered in patients with significant symptoms of PCD. Lymphangiography is recommended to determine anatomy and the site of the lymphatic leak, especially if lymphovenous grafting is planned. All patients had initial benefit postoperatively and two thirds of patients demonstrated durable clinical improvement after surgical treatment.


Monday, December 04, 2006

Intestinal Lymphangiectasia, B-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous Warts

Very late onset small intestinal B cell lymphoma associated with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia and diffuse cutaneous warts.

Bouhnik Y, Etienney I, Nemeth J, Thevenot T, Lavergne-Slove A, Matuchansky C.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris, France.

As only a handful of lymphoma cases have been reported in conjunction with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, it is not yet clear if this association is merely fortuitous or related to primary intestinal lymphangiectasia induced immune deficiency. We report on two female patients, 50 and 58 years old, who developed small intestinal high grade B cell lymphoma a long time (45 and 40 years, respectively) after the initial clinical manifestations of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. They presented with a longstanding history of fluctuating protein losing enteropathy, multiple cutaneous plane warts, and markedly dilated mucosal and submucosal lymphatic channels in duodenal biopsies. One had a large ulcerated tumour of the proximal ileum and the other diffuse ileal infiltration. In both, histological examination showed centroblastic high grade B cell lymphoma associated with duodenojejuno-ileal mucosal and submucosal lymphangiectasia. They were subsequently successfully treated with surgery and postoperative chemotherapy (AVmCP: adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, Vm26, and prednisolone), and chemotherapy alone (PACOB: adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, bleomycine, and prednisolone), respectively. A three year follow up in both cases showed persistent diffuse lymphangiectasia without evidence of lymphoma. The present findings support the hypothesis that primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is associated with lymphoma development.

Complete Article

British Medical Journal