Cryptoccocal menigitis as a primary manifestation in a patient with intestinal lymphangictasia.
Department of Neurology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Opportunistic infections usually occur in patients with an immunocompromised state, and can be severe. Cryptoccocal meningitis is a fatal condition if left untreated, and is usually found in such patients. We report the case of an adult patient with cryptoccocal meningitis secondary to intestinal lymphangiectasia. A 30 year old female was admitted to our hospital for meningitis. Biochemical and radiological investigations were performed. A cerebrospinal fluid latex agglutination test showed positive cryptoccocal antigen. In addition, there were features of humoral and cell mediated immunity deficiency (lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia), with a negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. An upper gastroduodenoscopy was performed, which showed multiple lymphangiectasias, and a biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL). The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B and oral flucytosine, and the meningitis resolved. PIL should be suspected in patients with cryptoccocal meningitis, combined with humoral and cell mediated immunity with a negative HIV test. The management issues, in addition to antifungal therapy, include nutritional supplements for the protein losing enteropathy.
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology/Pub Med
Labels: cell mediated immunity, Cryptoccocal menigitis, HIV test, hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, intestinal lymphangiectasia, intravenous amphotericin B, opportunistic infection, oral flucytosine